The Institute has state-of-the-art, high fidelity, dynamic, full scope replica Simulators of 135 MW CFBC generating unit. Routine Plant start up / shut down operations, cold-warm-hot startups, coasting down from full load to a lower load, handling plant emergencies and engineering analysis and some functional/maintenance aspects of major plant equipments are the salient features of the installed simulator. A Simulator is widely used for training of Operators/Engineers who gain quickly experience in normal, abnormal and emergency operation of a Power Plant. After two week training Engineer/Operator is capable to work in control room and also can handle the emergencies.
Functionality and Features
- Runtime Graphics
The instructor graphic are based on the graphical package of HMI web (Run time graphics) which will be designed based on the DCS graphics keeping the look and feel similar but not identical
In addition to the DCS objects there will be FOD’s and Instructor variable displayed on the graphics.
The toolbar allows direct access to commonly used application, training and engineering features found in the menu items.
The instructor, engineer or system manager has the capability of starting the simulator at any one of several snapshots (Initial Conditions). When the simulation model is originally built, it usually represents an empty, idle plant. By starting-up and operating the simulation model, a number of different operating conditions may be generated. At a specific point in time, an image of the process at that moment may be saved on computer disk as a snapshot or initial condition. An initial condition is defined as a set of static variables and parameters that represent the state of the simulator, as well as the simulated process, at a given instant in time. Snapshots are used as the starting points for simulation sessions.
Backtrack allows the system to be restored to a previous set of conditions saved during the current simulation session. Images in the simulation database can be automatically recorded at designated intervals during the session. When Backtrack is initiated, the simulator returns to a specified point in time and loads the same operating conditions and malfunctions that occurred at that instant. Backtrack may be turned on and off during the simulation session.
- Event Monitor
During a simulation session, all actions taken by the operator, instructor, and at the remote function console (Field Operated Devices/ Local Operator Console) can be recorded with appropriate simulation time stamps. These recorded operating sequences may be re-played during the current simulation session or at a later date using the Scenario feature described below.
The main purpose of the Scenario feature is to allow the instructor to set up repeatable and consistent training. In combination with the event-monitoring feature, the instructor may set up specific training exercises before a training session. Once initiated, the exercise follows predefined procedures such as causing malfunctions to occur automatically at prescribed times.
- Trainee Performance & Measurement (Trainee Performance Tables)
Trainee Performance & Measurement also known as Trainee Performance Tables provide a quantitative measure of a trainee’s performance. A Trainee Performance Table is a group of process variables and equipment status values that have defined performance limits. The user is able to choose which process variables and equipment status to include in the Trainee Performance Table and be able to save the table for recall during training exercises.
- Real Time Trending
Real Time Trending provides a multi-variable trend display of any simulated variables for viewing, reporting and record keeping. To quickly review process performance, you can view the values of key operating variables over a period of time. The graphical representation of variables as a function of time is called a trend. The Process Trends feature helps you review a Trainee’s performance during a training session.
- Custom Process Upsets
Process upsets and disturbances are included with the simulation model. A process upset is defined as a failure or degradation in the performance of plant equipment. In the Simulator system, any number of process upsets can be simulated for each process modeled. The detailed narrative for each of the custom malfunction listed and the effects observed after the malfunction is activated shall be described in detail in the detailed design document.
- Generic Process Upsets
In Simulator, there are three generic Process Upsets available to the user. The generic Process Upsets include Valve, Transmitter, and Switch Process Upsets. These are pre-configured on all the devices mentioned above, but the instructor must activate the generic malfunction by selecting the equipment to be malfunctioned and the type of malfunction to be started during the training session. A description of the generic malfunctions available follows:
The Simulator system allows most of the transmitters in the customer’s model to change their performance on-line. Simulator allows transmitters to be failed by freezing the transmitter output at a constant value, adding an offset to the output over time or making the output unstable, so that the output changes around the measured value (noise), even when the measured value does not change.
The user may be able to change the performance of some or all of the valves in the model. Simulator allows the instructor to fail valves in the following ways:
- Failure of the actuator
- Inaccurate actuator calibration
- Abnormal leakage through the valve when it is closed
- Restricted flow through the valve due to plugging
- Increased time delay responding to an actuator movement
- Resistance to actuator movement
- Oscillating actuator behavior
- Field operated Devices (FOD)
These are remote to DCS or local operated devices such as pump local start/stop, any block or manual valves which cannot be operated from the DCS consoles. The type of FOD’s can be either analog or digital.
- Instructor Variables (IV)
The instructor variables are functions given to the instructor which are factors driven by external changes. Some of the typical examples of instructor variables are given below
- Cooling water temperature
- Ambient air temperature
- Feed Composition
- Time Manager
The Time Manager can freeze/unfreeze the simulation model and allows the simulation model to run in either real time/fast time/no-wait time modes.
- Status Display
Status Display provides a one line summary of the current status of the simulation model. It appears at the bottom of the window and indicates error conditions, running mode, time mode and simulation time.
- On-line Help from developer
On-line Help is available to trainees, instructors, engineers and system managers in finding their way around the User Interface and its functions.
- Accounts and Access Level
The account system within Simulator uses the Windows 2000/XP account login information. When Simulator is started, the user’s Windows login information is referenced and compared to all current Simulator account information. If the login name is active, Simulator will initialize based on the current user’s access level and directory requirements. Therefore, the Administrator will need to create various user accounts for different levels of usage.
This level allows the use of:
- Time Manager
- Create and Delete Snapshots (not the Initial Condition Snapshots)
- Alarm Manager
- Time Manager
- Account Manager
- Trainee Performance Tables
- Process Upsets
- Event Monitor
- Unit Display